OZONE PM25 HOUSTON TX

06/27/2012     02:00 AM     

OZONE ALERT  MODERATE AQI

PM2.5  26ug/m3    &   80F High Temperature

HOUSTON OFFICE   98.7 % reduction Lung Damaging Dust

98.7 % Reduction @ >0.5 micron  Small
93.1 % Reduction @ >1.0 micron  Large

IN THIS EXAMPLE A HOUSTON OFFICE HAS 5600 PARTICLES / FT3

BUT OUTDOORS THERE ARE 465,200 PARTICLES / FT3. 

IT'S ABOUT 99% CLEANER AIR INSIDE.

 

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Dylos Logger v 1.6.0.0
Unit: DC1700 v 2.05
Date/Time: 06/27/12 02:05
-------------------------
Particles per cubic foot
-------------------------
Date/Time, Small, Large
06/27/12 02:00, 465200, 16000  Outdoor air quality  PM2.5  26ug/m3
06/27/12 02:01, 427300, 16600
06/27/12 02:02, 156400, 7200
06/27/12 02:03, 5900, 1900
06/27/12 02:04, 5600, 1100  Indoor air quality
06/27/12 02:06, 6300, 2400
06/27/12 02:07, 6700, 1800

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Lung Damaging Dust - Asthma is the most common childhood disease. This picture shows that the 0.5 micron particles are deposited deep in the Lung's Alveoli.

How Efficient are our lungs at filtering particles at 0.5 microns?

ALVEOLI Lung Filtering Efficiency 18% @ >0.5 microns

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http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/resnotes/notes/94-11.htm

Research Note 94-11: Topic = How Much Air Do We Breathe?


California Environmental Protection Agency

Air Resources Board

How Much Air Do We Breathe Sitting?

8.5 Liters = 0.3 FT3/MIN

10 LITERS PER MINUTE =  0.35 CUBIC FEET PER MINUTE(FT3/MIN)

 



No. 94-11
August 1994
RESEARCH NOTES

Brief Reports to the Scientific and Technical Community

________________________________________

Research Division, John R. Holmes, Ph.D., Chief

P.O. Box 2815, Sacramento CA 98512


________________________________________

How Much Air

Do We Breathe?

________________________________________

In this Note we describe the first large systematic study to measure the amount of air people breathe during their normal activities. The amount of air breathed and related physiological factors were measured on 160 normally active males and females ranging from 6 to 77 years of age. Measurements were taken both during actual work and play conditions and in laboratory settings.
Results indicate that adult males from adolescents through seniors breathe similar amounts of air during similar activities, as do adult females across those age groups. Children inhale more air than do adults, relative to body surface area, breathing frequency, and heart rate. However, the investigator found that widely used estimation methods based on treadmill heart rate measurements tend to overpredict the amount of air breathed during field activities by 10-20 percent. This study provides actual measurements obtained during real activities, and will significantly improve population estimates of the amount of air pollutants inhaled, thereby reducing some of the uncertainty in air pollution risk assessment.


Background:


Estimating and reducing health risk from air pollution requires accurate estimates of the inhaled dose of pollutants. Inhaled dose is based on three factors: the concentration of pollutant in the air, the amount of time the person spends in the polluted environment, and the amount of air the person breathes while in the environment. Previous breathing measurement studies were conducted primarily on men performing athletic and occupational activities. This study emphasized breathing measurements of children, women, and senior citizens during common activities performed around the home. This study also included subjects representative of California´s ethnic diversity.



Methods:


Each subject´s heart rate, breathing frequency, and volume of air breathed were measured both in laboratory settings and at home during usual activities. Equal numbers of subjects were tested in each of four age groups: child, adolescent, young/middle-aged adult, and senior. In the laboratory, subjects were monitored while lying down, sitting, standing, walking, and jogging. Field measurements were gathered during a variety of common activities: playing, driving and riding in a car, working in the yard, performing housework, mowing the lawn, and engaging in woodwork and car maintenance.


Results:


The primary purpose of this study was to provide population-based breathing averages and distributions appropriate for air pollution risk assessment. Figures 1,2, and 3 indicate the average volume of air breathed during various activities for children, adult females, and adult males, respectively. Relative to body surface area, the volume of air breathed by children is substantially higher than the volume breathed by adults because children have greater metabolic needs, due to growth. Differences in breathing volumes among adults are primarily due to differences in body surface area.
Findings from the field measurements indicate that common household tasks are typically conducted at moderate exercise levels. Children generally self-regulate and play at moderate exercise levels. Breathing volumes at light or moderate exercise levels are best predicted by body surface area and breathing frequency. For more intense exercise, such as sustained walking or running, tha heart rate is the best predictor of the amount of air breeathed for adult females. However, breathing frequency and body surface area are best for the other subpopulations during these activities. This study showed that using laboratory treadmill heart rate findings tends to overpredict by 10 to 20 percent the amount of air breathed during field activities.
The study discerned small but important differences in the volume of air breathed during seemingly similar activities. For example, sitting, riding in a car, and driving a car are all sedentary activities, yet subjects inhaled 5.4 percent more air per minute while riding in a car than while sitting quietly in the laboratory. While driving a car, subjects inhaled 15.4 percent more air per minute than while sitting in the laboratory and 9.6 percent more than while riding in a car.

Significance and Application:


A unique component of this study was the measurement of breathing volume and heart rate of subjects while they performed regular activities at home. This study eliminates the uncertainty of estimating breathing volumes for everyday activities from laboratory measurements. In addition the study provides breathing measurements for children, women, and seniors; previously, measurements for these groups were extremely limited. This information is pivotal for estimating the amount of pollutants inhaled by Californians.

Related Projects:


The Air Resources Board has sponsored studies to determine how much time Californians spend in different locations and activities. The results of this breathing study will be used in combination with results of the activity studies and indoor and outdoor pollutant concentration data to improve our estimates of the amount of air pollutants people inhale during their normal daily lives..


This research was conducted under contract with the University of California, Davis (ARB Contract No. A033-205). Comments or questions can be directed to Dorothy Shimer, by mail, FAX (916) 322-4357, e-mail, or phone (916) 327-8693.
Copies of the research report upon which this Note is based can be ordered from:
National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Rd
Springfield VA 22161
Request NTIS No. PB94109444
Title: Measurement of Breathing Rate and Volume in Routinely Performed Activites
Authors: William C. Adams

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Indoor Air Quality at Work

OFFICE BUILDINGS NEAR A HOUSTON FREEWAY

Houston Freeway Traffic

Over 1 Million Cars / Trucks per week travel on the 610 Loop near the Galleria.

The stale indoor air CO2 / VOC chemicals have to be replaced with "Fresh Outdoor Air".

If your office building is near a freeway, then your fresh air contains car / truck vehicle PM2.5 pollution.

Houston Freeway Traffic

500,000 to 1.5 Million Cars / Trucks per week are driving on the 610 Loop, Hwy 59, I-10, I-45, Beltway 8 , Hwy 290.  TX DOT 2010 Report

The only way to know your indoor air quality is to measure it for Particles and VOC Chemicals.

We Measure the Outdoor Air and compare it with the Indoor Air.

Office Workers near a Houston Freeway.

Indoor Air Quality is 40,000 particles / ft3 @ >0.5 micron.

Workers inhale 2,160 Lung Damaging Particles per minute and will remain in the employee's body's lung and blood.

Diesel Soot is made up of microscopic particles released from diesel trucks and buses.

W.H.O. Declares Diesel Fumes Cause Lung Cancer

Dr. Albert Rizzo of the American Lung Association

Particle pollution at levels currently labeled as officially "SAFE" causes heart attacks, strokes, and asthma attacks.

*

Typical Indoor Air Quality Office Houston TX

Indoor Particle Count/FT3 @ >0.5 Microns

 

Particles Remaining in the Body's Lungs and Blood Stream every minute. 

Adult Breathe 8.5 LITERS/MIN = (0.3 FT3/MIN)

SITTING IN A CHAIR

10,000 Indoor AIR PARTICLES/FT3 540 PARTICLES STAY IN LUNGS PER MIN  (1/4 milion/8HRS)
20,000  Indoor AIR PARTICLES/FT3 1,080    (1/2 milion/8HRS)
40,000  Indoor AIR PARTICLES/FT3 2,160    (1 million/8HRS)
60,000  Indoor AIR PARTICLES/FT3 3,240    (1.5 million/8HRS)
100,000  Indoor AIR PARTICLES/FT3 5,400    (2.5 million/8HRS)

 

 

HOW MANY LUNG DAMAGING DUST PARTICLES STAY IN YOUR LUNGS EVERYDAY AT WORK WHEN THE AIR QUALITY INDOORS IS 40,000 PARTICLES / CUBIC FOOT OF AIR?

40,000 ROOM PARTICLE COUNT (Indoor AIR PARTICLES/FT3) x 0.3 FT3 ACTIVITY (Sitting)

x 0.18  (18% Lung Efficiency)  x 480 (480 minutes in a 8 hour work day) =

Particles that are inhaled per work day and stay in the lungs forever.

 

*

Houston Children playing outdoors near a Freeway can breath 20 times more diesel pollution than an office worker.

School Children Playing Outdoors

Researchers have found that more than 30 percent of American public schools are within a quarter mile of major highways that consistently serve as main truck and traffic routes.

MODERATE AQI

Houston Children playing outdoors near a Freeway

Houston Schools -

Children at School playing outdoors near a Houston Freeway 400,000 particles / ft3 @ >0.5 micron = 43,200 Lung Damaging Particles per minute will remain in the child's body lungs and blood.

Children playing outdoors can inhale 20 times more diesel pollution than a typical office worker.

 

 

 

Children playing outdoors in Houston TX  -

Children Breathe 17 LITER/MIN = (0.60 FT3/MIN)

Children Lung Filtering Efficiency 18% @ >0.5 microns

Houston Children playing outdoors near a Freeway

MODERATE AQI

Houston Schools - Children at School playing outdoors near a Houston Freeway 400,000 particles / ft3 @ >0.5 micron = 43,200 Lung Damaging Particles per minute will remain in the body's lungs and blood. (2.6 Million Particles per hour)

Houston Children playing outdoors but far from the Freeway GOOD AQI

100,000 particles / ft3 @ 0.5 micron  = 10,800 Lung Damaging Particles per minute will remain in the body's lungs and blood. (648,000 Particles per hour)

 

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HOW MUCH AIR POLLUTION AM I SUCKING IN BY RUNNING OUTDOORS?

JAN 15, 2012     AQI Index  PM2.5 =   7 UG/M3  afternoon (26 K = 16 miles and running at 5 miles / hour

The 26K Race lasts 3.2 hours  (192 minutes) running at 5 MPH

Adult breathes 58 Liters/Min = 2 cubic feet/min

Lung Filtering Efficiency 18% @ 0.5 micron size particles

 

Outdoor Particle Count 100,000 PARTICLES / FT3  @ >0.5 Microns

100,000 (PARTICLES / FT3) X 2 FT3 (volume inhaled/MIN) X .18 (Lung Efficiency) = 36,000 PARTICLES / MIN STAY IN THE LUNGS.

(36,000 PARTICLES / MIN) x 192min = 6.9 million PARTICLES per 26K Race

(26K Marathon 6.9 Million Particles / 3.2 hour run) THAT STAYS IN YOUR LUNGS AND BLOOD.

 

26K =16 miles

HOUSTON MARATHON

3.2 HOURS

RUNNING OUTDOORS

 

HOW MUCH AIR POLLUTION AM I SUCKING IN BY RUNNING OUTDOORS?

RUNNING 5 MPH --ADULT MALE --56 LITERS/MIN  = 2 CUBIC FEET (FT3)/MIN

  PM2.5 = 26 UG/M3     400,000 PARTICLES / FT3  @ >0.5 Microns

400,000 X 2 FT3 X .18 (Efficiency) = 144,000 PARTICLES / MIN THAT STAY IN YOUR LUNGS AND BLOOD.

(26K Marathon 27.6 Million Particles / 3.2 hours)

 

    PM2.5 =   UG/M3   100,000 PARTICLES / FT3  @ >0.5 Microns

100,000 X 2 FT3 X .18 (Efficiency) = 36,000 PARTICLES / MIN THAT STAY IN YOUR LUNGS AND BLOOD

(26K Marathon 6.9 Million Particles / 3.2 hours)

 

  ADULT SITTING IN AN OFFICE

Adult BREATH 8.5 Liters/Min = (0.3 FT3/MIN)

INDOOR AIR QUALITY 40,000 Particles Count / FT3 @ >0.5 Microns

2,160 Particles Remaining in the Lungs and Blood Stream every minute.  or (1 million particles/8HRS)

 

 

06/27/12 02:00, 465200 particles/ft3 @ 0.5 microns        

416 Air Monitoring station    PM2.5  26 ug/m3   2:00 AM

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06/28/2012     03:00 AM     

OZONE ALERT

PM2.5  22 ug/m3    &   80F High Temperature

MY OFFICE   99 % reduction Lung Damaging Dust

99 % Reduction @ >0.5 micron  Small
98 % Reduction @ >1.0 micron  Large

IN THIS EXAMPLE MY OFFICE  HAS 7,200 PARTICLES / FT3

BUT OUTDOORS THERE ARE 699,000 PARTICLES / FT3. 

IT'S ABOUT 99% CLEANER AIR INSIDE.

-------------------------
Dylos Logger v 1.6.0.0
Unit: DC1700 v 2.05
Date/Time: 06/28/12 03:12
-------------------------
Particles per cubic foot
-------------------------
Date/Time, Small, Large
06/28/12 02:58, 32100, 1500
06/28/12 02:59, 699000, 36100  Outdoor Air Quality
06/28/12 03:00, 656600, 34100
06/28/12 03:01, 474200, 20700
06/28/12 03:02, 211600, 2800
06/28/12 03:03, 170200, 2000     MERV 13  SINGLE PASS   75% REDUCTION
06/28/12 03:04, 218400, 5900
06/28/12 03:05, 384100, 15100
06/28/12 03:06, 355900, 14100
06/28/12 03:07, 14500, 800
06/28/12 03:08, 8800, 1100
06/28/12 03:09, 8100, 900
06/28/12 03:10, 8100, 700
06/28/12 03:11, 8000, 500
06/28/12 03:12, 7200, 800  INDOOR AIR QUALITY
06/28/12 03:13, 10000, 1900
06/28/12 03:14, 8600, 1600

 

**

06/29/2012     05:00 AM     

PM2.5  20 ug/m3    &   79F High Temperature

MY OFFICE    98% reduction Lung Damaging Dust

 98  % Reduction @ >0.5 micron  Small
 93  % Reduction @ >1.0 micron  Large

IN THIS EXAMPLE MY OFFICE  HAS 8,400 PARTICLES / FT3

BUT OUTDOORS THERE ARE 570,900 PARTICLES / FT3. 

IT'S ABOUT 98% CLEANER AIR INSIDE.

 

 

 

-------------------------
Dylos Logger v 1.6.0.0
Unit: DC1700 v 2.05
Date/Time: 06/29/12 05:12
-------------------------
Particles per cubic foot
-------------------------
Date/Time, Small, Large
06/29/12 05:01, 17700, 1400
06/29/12 05:02, 290700, 15900
06/29/12 05:03, 570900, 28500    OUTDOOR
06/29/12 05:04, 438000, 14500
06/29/12 05:05, 291400, 4500
06/29/12 05:06, 307900, 3900        MERV13
06/29/12 05:07, 524500, 21200 
06/29/12 05:08, 506000, 20800
06/29/12 05:09, 220400, 3000
06/29/12 05:10, 66500, 3000
06/29/12 05:12, 8400, 2100    INDOOR
06/29/12 05:13, 10900, 2400
06/29/12 05:14, 16400, 5400

 

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